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Traceroute lets you find out which servers are in the path between you and a remote host.
This traces the route to a particular host using ICMP Echo packets. One of the options in an ICMP packet is TTL or time to live. As an ICMP packet passes through each system, the time to live for that packet is decremented by one. If the result is zero, the packet is discarded and an error message is sent back to the originator. In this manner, by using sending out packets with sequentially greater TTL values, the program can receive error messages from each host along the path to a particular destination.